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California , constituent state of the United States of America. It was admitted as the 31st state of the union on September 9, , and by the early s it was the most populous U.
The capital is Sacramento. California is bounded by the U. From the rainy northern coast to the parched Colorado Desert in the south, and from the Mediterranean-like central and southern littoral to the volcanic plateau of the far northeast, California is a land of stunning physical contrasts.
Both the highest and lowest points in the 48 conterminous states are in the state of California— Mount Whitney and Death Valley , respectively.
The former is the culminating summit of the Sierra Nevada , one of the major mountain ranges of North America.
Despite its urbanization and the loss of land to industry, California still leads the country in agricultural production.
National parks located throughout the state are devoted to the preservation of nature and natural resources.
Area , square miles , square km. Population 37,,; est. The heartland of California is the Central Valley , which runs for miles km through the centre of the state, forming a trough between the Coast Ranges to the west and the Sierra Nevada to the east.
Its single opening is the delta through which the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers drain into San Francisco Bay.
The valley is sealed off by the Cascade Range to the northeast and by the Klamath Mountains to the northwest.
In the far north the terrain is rugged and heavily forested, becoming wetter on the coastal side and drier and barren in the higher northeast. In the s, popular music groups such as The Beach Boys promoted the image of Californians as laid-back, tanned beach-goers.
The California Gold Rush of the s is still seen as a symbol of California's economic style, which tends to generate technology, social, entertainment, and economic fads and booms and related busts.
Hollywood and the rest of the Los Angeles area is a major global center for entertainment, with the U. The four major American television broadcast networks ABC , CBS , Fox and NBC all have production facilities and offices in the state.
All four, plus the two major Spanish-language networks Telemundo and Univision each have at least two owned-and-operated TV stations in California, one in Los Angeles and one in the San Francisco Bay Area.
The San Francisco Bay Area is home to several prominent internet media and social media companies, including three of the "Big Five" technology companies Apple , Facebook , and Google as well as other services such as Netflix , Pandora Radio , Twitter , Yahoo!
One of the oldest radio stations in the United States still in existence, KCBS AM in the Bay Area, was founded in Universal Music Group , one of the " Big Four " record labels, is based in Santa Monica.
California is also the birthplace of several international music genres, including the Bakersfield sound , Bay Area thrash metal , g-funk , nu metal , stoner rock , surf music , West Coast hip hop , and West Coast jazz.
The largest religious denominations by number of adherents as a percentage of California's population in were the Catholic Church with 28 percent, Evangelical Protestants with 20 percent, and Mainline Protestants with 10 percent.
Together, all kinds of Protestants accounted for 32 percent. Those unaffiliated with any religion represented 27 percent of the population.
In , those unaffiliated with any religion represented 21 percent of the population. The breakdown of other religions in was 0.
The first priests to come to California were Roman Catholic missionaries from Spain. Roman Catholics founded 21 missions along the California coast , as well as the cities of Los Angeles and San Francisco.
California continues to have a large Roman Catholic population due to the large numbers of Mexicans and Central Americans living within its borders.
California has twelve dioceses and two archdioceses, the Archdiocese of Los Angeles and the Archdiocese of San Francisco , the former being the largest archdiocese in the United States.
A Pew Research Center survey revealed that California is somewhat less religious than the rest of the states: 62 percent of Californians say they are "absolutely certain" of their belief in God, while in the nation 71 percent say so.
The survey also revealed 48 percent of Californians say religion is "very important", compared to 56 percent nationally. California has nineteen major professional sports league franchises, far more than any other state.
The San Francisco Bay Area has six major league teams spread in its three major cities: San Francisco, San Jose, and Oakland, while the Greater Los Angeles Area is home to ten major league franchises.
San Diego and Sacramento each have one major league team. The NFL Super Bowl has been hosted in California 11 times at four different stadiums: Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum , the Rose Bowl, Stanford Stadium, and San Diego's Qualcomm Stadium.
A twelfth, Super Bowl 50 , was held at Levi's Stadium in Santa Clara on February 7, California has long had many respected collegiate sports programs.
California is home to the oldest college bowl game, the annual Rose Bowl , among others. California is the only U. The and summer games were held in Los Angeles.
Squaw Valley Ski Resort in the Lake Tahoe region hosted the Winter Olympics. Los Angeles will host the Summer Olympics , marking the fourth time that California will have hosted the Olympic Games.
Public secondary education consists of high schools that teach elective courses in trades, languages, and liberal arts with tracks for gifted, college-bound and industrial arts students.
California's public educational system is supported by a unique constitutional amendment that requires a minimum annual funding level for grades K—12 and community colleges that grow with the economy and student enrollment figures.
For , California's K—12 public schools ranked 48th in the number of employees per student, at 0. A study concluded that California's public school system was "broken" in that it suffered from over-regulation.
California's public postsecondary education offers three separate systems:. California is also home to such notable private universities as Stanford University , the University of Southern California , the California Institute of Technology , and the Claremont Colleges.
California has hundreds of other private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions. California has twinning arrangements with the region of Catalonia in Spain  and with the Province of Alberta in Canada.
California's economy ranks among the largest in the world. The five largest sectors of employment in California are trade, transportation, and utilities; government; professional and business services; education and health services; and leisure and hospitality.
In output, the five largest sectors are financial services, followed by trade, transportation, and utilities; education and health services; government; and manufacturing.
California's economy is dependent on trade and international related commerce accounts for about one-quarter of the state's economy.
Agriculture is an important sector in California's economy. Factors contributing to the growth in sales-per-acre include more intensive use of active farmlands and technological improvements in crop production.
The Central Valley is the most impoverished, with migrant farm workers making less than minimum wage. According to a report by the Congressional Research Service , the San Joaquin Valley was characterized as one of the most economically depressed regions in the United States, on par with the region of Appalachia.
The high-technology sectors in Northern California, specifically Silicon Valley , in Santa Clara and San Mateo counties , have emerged from the economic downturn caused by the dot-com bust.
In , there were 1,, millionaire households in the state, more than any other state in the nation. California GDP by sector in . Had California been an independent country in its gross domestic product would have been ranked fifth in the world.
With the passage of Proposition 30 in and Proposition 55 in , California now levies a While Proposition 30 also enacted a minimum state sales tax of 7.
Local governments can and do levy additional sales taxes in addition to this minimum rate. All real property is taxable annually; the ad valorem tax is based on the property's fair market value at the time of purchase or the value of new construction.
Because it is the most populous state in the United States, California is one of the country's largest users of energy.
However because of its high energy rates, conservation mandates, mild weather in the largest population centers and strong environmental movement, its per capita energy use is one of the smallest of any state in the United States.
As a result of the state's strong environmental movement, California has some of the most aggressive renewable energy goals in the United States, with a target for California to obtain a third of its electricity from renewables by California's wind farms include Altamont Pass , San Gorgonio Pass , and Tehachapi Pass.
The Tehachapi area is also where the Tehachapi Energy Storage Project is located. The state's crude oil and natural gas deposits are located in the Central Valley and along the coast, including the large Midway-Sunset Oil Field.
Natural gas-fired power plants typically account for more than one-half of state electricity generation. California is also home to two major nuclear power plants: Diablo Canyon and San Onofre , the latter having been shut down in California's vast terrain is connected by an extensive system of controlled-access highways 'freeways' , limited-access roads 'expressways' , and highways.
California is known for its car culture , giving California's cities a reputation for severe traffic congestion.
Construction and maintenance of state roads and statewide transportation planning are primarily the responsibility of the California Department of Transportation , nicknamed "Caltrans".
The rapidly growing population of the state is straining all of its transportation networks, and California has some of the worst roads in the United States.
The state has been a pioneer in road construction. With its orange paint and panoramic views of the bay, this highway bridge is a popular tourist attraction and also accommodates pedestrians and bicyclists.
The San Francisco—Oakland Bay Bridge often abbreviated the "Bay Bridge" , completed in , transports about , vehicles per day on two-decks.
Los Angeles International Airport LAX , the 4th busiest airport in the world in , and San Francisco International Airport SFO , the 25th busiest airport in the world in , are major hubs for trans-Pacific and transcontinental traffic.
There are about a dozen important commercial airports and many more general aviation airports throughout the state. California also has several important seaports.
The giant seaport complex formed by the Port of Los Angeles and the Port of Long Beach in Southern California is the largest in the country and responsible for handling about a fourth of all container cargo traffic in the United States.
The Port of Oakland , fourth largest in the nation, also handles trade entering from the Pacific Rim to the rest of the country. The Port of Stockton is the farthest inland port on the west coast of the United States.
The California Highway Patrol is the largest statewide police agency in the United States in employment with more than 10, employees. They are responsible for providing any police-sanctioned service to anyone on California's state-maintained highways and on state property.
The California Department of Motor Vehicles is by far the largest in North America. By the end of , the California DMV had 26,, driver's licenses and ID cards on file.
Inter-city rail travel is provided by Amtrak California ; the three routes, the Capitol Corridor , Pacific Surfliner , and San Joaquin , are funded by Caltrans.
These services are the busiest intercity rail lines in the United States outside the Northeast Corridor and ridership is continuing to set records.
The routes are becoming increasingly popular over flying, especially on the LAX-SFO route. Light rail systems are also found in San Jose VTA , San Diego San Diego Trolley , Sacramento RT Light Rail , and Northern San Diego County Sprinter.
Furthermore, commuter rail networks serve the San Francisco Bay Area ACE , BART , Caltrain , SMART , Greater Los Angeles Metrolink , and San Diego County Coaster.
Nearly all counties operate bus lines, and many cities operate their own city bus lines as well. Intercity bus travel is provided by Greyhound , Megabus , and Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach.
The state's widespread redistribution of water also invites the frequent scorn of environmentalists. The California Water Wars , a conflict between Los Angeles and the Owens Valley over water rights, is one of the most well-known examples of the struggle to secure adequate water supplies.
So it developed into a battle between environmentalists and farmers and between the south and the north and between rural and urban. And everyone has been fighting for the last four decades about water.
The capital of California is located within Sacramento. After June 8, , when Proposition 14 was approved, excepting only the United States president and county central committee offices,  all candidates in the primary elections are listed on the ballot with their preferred party affiliation, but they are not the official nominee of that party.
The California executive branch consists of the governor and seven other elected constitutional officers: lieutenant governor , attorney general , secretary of state , state controller , state treasurer , insurance commissioner , and state superintendent of public instruction.
They serve four-year terms and may be re-elected only once. The California State Legislature consists of a member Senate and member Assembly.
Senators serve four-year terms and Assembly members two. Members of the Assembly are subject to term limits of three terms, and members of the Senate are subject to term limits of two terms.
California's legal system is explicitly based upon English common law  as is the case with all other states except Louisiana but carries a few features from Spanish civil law , such as community property.
California's prison population grew from 25, in to over , in California's judiciary system is the largest in the United States with a total of 1, judges the federal system has only about At the apex is the seven-member Supreme Court of California, while the California Courts of Appeal serve as the primary appellate courts and the California Superior Courts serve as the primary trial courts.
Justices of the Supreme Court and Courts of Appeal are appointed by the governor, but are subject to retention by the electorate every 12 years.
The administration of the state's court system is controlled by the Judicial Council , composed of the chief justice of the California Supreme Court, 14 judicial officers, four representatives from the State Bar of California , and one member from each house of the state legislature.
California is divided into 58 counties. Per Article 11, Section 1, of the Constitution of California , they are the legal subdivisions of the state.
The county government provides countywide services such as law enforcement, jails, elections and voter registration, vital records, property assessment and records, tax collection, public health, health care, social services, libraries, flood control, fire protection, animal control, agricultural regulations, building inspections, ambulance services, and education departments in charge of maintaining statewide standards.
Each county is governed by an elected board of supervisors. Incorporated cities and towns in California are either charter or general-law municipalities.
Municipalities incorporated in the 19th century tend to be charter municipalities. All ten of the state's most populous cities are charter cities.
Most small cities have a council—manager form of government, where the elected city council appoints a city manager to supervise the operations of the city.
Some larger cities have a directly-elected mayor who oversees the city government. In many council-manager cities, the city council selects one of its members as a mayor, sometimes rotating through the council membership—but this type of mayoral position is primarily ceremonial.
The Government of San Francisco is the only consolidated city-county in California, where both the city and county governments have been merged into one unified jurisdiction.
About 1, school districts , independent of cities and counties, handle California's public education. There are about 3, special districts in California.
The geographic area of a special district can spread across multiple cities or counties, or could consist of only a portion of one. Most of California's special districts are single-purpose districts , and provide one service.
The state of California sends 53 members to the House of Representatives ,  the nation's largest congressional state delegation.
Consequently California also has the largest number of electoral votes in national presidential elections, with The current speaker of the House of Representatives is the representative of California's 12th district, Nancy Pelosi ;  Kevin McCarthy , representing the state's 23rd district, is the House Minority Leader.
California's U. In the U. Senate election , California became the first state to elect a Senate delegation entirely composed of women, due to the victories of Feinstein and Barbara Boxer.
In California, as of [update] , the U. Department of Defense had a total of , active duty servicemembers of which 88, were Sailors or Marines , 18, were Airmen , and 11, were Soldiers , with 61, Department of Defense civilian employees.
Additionally, there were a total of 57, Reservists and Guardsman in California. In , Los Angeles County was the largest origin of military recruits in the United States by county, with 1, individuals enlisting in the military.
In , California, had 2,, veterans of United States military service : , served in World War II, , in the Korean War , , during the Vietnam War , and , during — including the Persian Gulf War.
California's military forces consist of the Army and Air National Guard , the naval and state military reserve militia , and the California Cadet Corps.
On August 5, , a nuclear-capable United States Air Force Boeing B Superfortress bomber carrying a nuclear bomb crashed shortly after takeoff from Fairfield-Suisun Air Force Base.
Brigadier General Robert F. Travis , command pilot of the bomber, was among the dead. California has an idiosyncratic political culture compared to the rest of the country, and is sometimes regarded as a trendsetter.
As of the presidential election, California was the second most Democratic state behind Hawaii. Voters also passed Proposition 71 in to fund stem cell research, and Proposition 14 in to completely change the state's primary election process.
California has also experienced disputes over water rights ; and a tax revolt , culminating with the passage of Proposition 13 in , limiting state property taxes.
The state's trend towards the Democratic Party and away from the Republican Party can be seen in state elections. From to , California had Republican governors.
Since , California has generally elected Democratic candidates to federal, state and local offices, including current Governor Gavin Newsom ; however, the state has elected Republican Governors, though many of its Republican Governors, such as Arnold Schwarzenegger, tend to be considered moderate Republicans and more centrist than the national party.
Several political movements have advocated for Californian independence. The California National Party and the California Freedom Coalition both advocate for Californian independence along the lines of progressivism and civic nationalism.
The Democrats also now hold a supermajority in both houses of the state legislature. There are 60 Democrats and 20 Republicans in the Assembly; and 29 Democrats and 11 Republicans in the Senate.
The trend towards the Democratic Party is most obvious in presidential elections. From through , California was a Republican leaning state, with the party carrying the state's electoral votes in nine of ten elections, with as the exception.
Southern California Republicans Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan were both elected twice as the 37th and 40th U.
Presidents, respectively. However, Democrats have won all of California's electoral votes for the last seven elections, starting in In the United States House, the Democrats held a 34—19 edge in the CA delegation of the th United States Congress in As the result of gerrymandering , the districts in California were usually dominated by one or the other party, and few districts were considered competitive.
In , Californians passed Proposition 20 to empower a member independent citizen commission to redraw districts for both local politicians and Congress.
After the elections, when the new system took effect, Democrats gained four seats and held a 38—15 majority in the delegation.
Following the midterm House elections , Democrats won 46 out of 53 congressional house seats in California, leaving Republicans with seven.
In general, Democratic strength is centered in the populous coastal regions of the Los Angeles metropolitan area and the San Francisco Bay Area.
Republican strength is still greatest in eastern parts of the state. Orange County had remained largely Republican until the and elections, in which a majority of the county's votes were cast for Democratic candidates.
In October , out of the 23,, people eligible to vote, 18,, people were registered to vote. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
State of the United States of America. This article is about the State of California. For other uses, see California disambiguation.
State in the United States. Golden State . Mount Whitney    . Badwater Basin . Fresh water: Golden trout Marine: Garibaldi.
Land: California grizzly bear State animal  Marine: Gray whale. Main articles: Etymology of California and Island of California.
Main article: History of California. Further information: History of California before Main article: Indigenous peoples of California. Main articles: California Republic and Conquest of California.
See also: Mexican Cession. Miners during the California Gold Rush. California being admitted to the Union under the Compromise of Merchant ships at San Francisco harbor c.
Guidon of the California Company Company A during the Civil War. Depiction of the completion of the first transcontinental railway. The Last Spike by Thomas Hill.
Main article: History of California —present. Main article: Geography of California. This section contains an unencyclopedic or excessive gallery of images.
Please help improve the section by removing excessive or indiscriminate images or by moving relevant images beside adjacent text, in accordance with the Manual of Style on use of images.
Learn how and when to remove this template message. Mount Shasta. Glamis sand dunes. Main article: Climate of California.
Further information: Climate change in California. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Ecology of California. See also: Environment of California. Main articles: Fauna of California and California Floristic Province.
See also: List of California native plants. See also: List of invertebrates of California. Further information: List of rivers of California.
Further information: List of regions of California and List of places in California. The Atlantic Monthly.
Hale, Edward Everett 30 April Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society at the Hall of the American Academy in Boston : 45— Retrieved 27 July Polk, Dora Beale The Island of California: A History of the Myth.
Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. Putnam, Ruth Herbert Ingram Priestley ed. California: the name. Berkeley: University of California.
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