Datum der Veröffentlichung. November Entwickler. City Siege wurde von ThePodge entwickelt. Plattform. Webbrowser. Anleitung. Weitere Spiele in der. Bunker Hill: A City, a Siege, a Revolution (Hörbuch-Download): thelodgeatlanesend.com: Nathaniel Philbrick, Chris Sorensen, Random House AudioBooks: Audible. Bunker Hill: A City, a Siege, a Revolution (The American Revolution Series, Band 1) | Philbrick, Nathaniel | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle.
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City Siege Navigation menu VideoThe Elder Scrolls Online - The Siege Cinematic Trailer (PEGI) Many translated example sentences containing "city siege" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Many translated example sentences containing "City Siege" – English-German dictionary and search engine for English translations. Datum der Veröffentlichung. November Entwickler. City Siege wurde von ThePodge entwickelt. Plattform. Webbrowser. Anleitung. Weitere Spiele in der. Bunker Hill: A City, a Siege, a Revolution (Hörbuch-Download): thelodgeatlanesend.com: Nathaniel Philbrick, Chris Sorensen, Random House AudioBooks: Audible.
Philosophie BГјcher FГјr Einsteiger. - Über dieses SpielFiltern Sie Rezensionen nach der Spielzeit des Spielers zum Zeitpunkt der Rezension:.
The Hittite siege of a rebellious Anatolian vassal in the 14th century BC ended when the queen mother came out of the city and begged for mercy on behalf of her people.
The Hittite campaign against the kingdom of Mitanni in the 14th century BC bypassed the fortified city of Carchemish. If the main objective of a campaign was not the conquest of a particular city, it could simply be passed by.
When the main objective of the campaign had been fulfilled, the Hittite army returned to Carchemish and the city fell after an eight-day siege.
Disease was another effective siege weapon, although the attackers were often as vulnerable as the defenders. In some instances, catapults or similar weapons were used to fling diseased animals over city walls in an early example of biological warfare.
If all else failed, a besieger could claim the booty of his conquest undamaged, and retain his men and equipment intact, for the price of a well-placed bribe to a disgruntled gatekeeper.
The Assyrian Siege of Jerusalem in the 8th century BC came to an end when the Israelites bought them off with gifts and tribute, according to the Assyrian account, or when the Assyrian camp was struck by mass death, according to the Biblical account.
Due to logistics, long-lasting sieges involving a minor force could seldom be maintained. A besieging army, encamped in possibly squalid field conditions and dependent on the countryside and its own supply lines for food, could very well be threatened with the disease and starvation intended for the besieged.
To end a siege more rapidly, various methods were developed in ancient and medieval times to counter fortifications, and a large variety of siege engines was developed for use by besieging armies.
Ladders could be used to escalade over the defenses. Battering rams and siege hooks could also be used to force through gates or walls, while catapults , ballistae , trebuchets , mangonels , and onagers could be used to launch projectiles to break down a city's fortifications and kill its defenders.
A siege tower , a substantial structure built to equal or greater height than the fortification's walls, could allow the attackers to fire down upon the defenders and also advance troops to the wall with less danger than using ladders.
In addition to launching projectiles at the fortifications or defenders, it was also quite common to attempt to undermine the fortifications, causing them to collapse.
This could be accomplished by digging a tunnel beneath the foundations of the walls, and then deliberately collapsing or exploding the tunnel.
This process is known as mining. The defenders could dig counter-tunnels to cut into the attackers' works and collapse them prematurely.
Fire was often used as a weapon when dealing with wooden fortifications. The Byzantine Empire used Greek fire , which contained additives that made it hard to extinguish.
Combined with a primitive flamethrower , it proved an effective offensive and defensive weapon. The universal method for defending against siege is the use of fortifications, principally walls and ditches , to supplement natural features.
A sufficient supply of food and water was also important to defeat the simplest method of siege warfare: starvation.
On occasion, the defenders would drive 'surplus' civilians out to reduce the demands on stored food and water.
During the Warring States period in China — BC , warfare lost its honorable, gentlemen's duty that was found in the previous era of the Spring and Autumn period , and became more practical, competitive, cut-throat, and efficient for gaining victory.
The philosophically pacifist Mohists followers of the philosopher Mozi of the 5th century BC believed in aiding the defensive warfare of smaller Chinese states against the hostile offensive warfare of larger domineering states.
The Mohists were renowned in the smaller states and the enemies of the larger states for the inventions of siege machinery to scale or destroy walls.
These included traction trebuchet catapults , eight-foot-high ballistas , a wheeled siege ramp with grappling hooks known as the Cloud Bridge the protractible, folded ramp slinging forward by means of a counterweight with rope and pulley , and wheeled 'hook-carts' used to latch large iron hooks onto the tops of walls to pull them down.
When enemies attempted to dig tunnels under walls for mining or entry into the city, the defenders used large bellows the type the Chinese commonly used in heating up a blast furnace for smelting cast iron to pump smoke into the tunnels in order to suffocate the intruders.
Advances in the prosecution of sieges in ancient and medieval times naturally encouraged the development of a variety of defensive countermeasures.
In particular, medieval fortifications became progressively stronger—for example, the advent of the concentric castle from the period of the Crusades —and more dangerous to attackers—witness the increasing use of machicolations and murder-holes , as well the preparation of hot or incendiary substances.
Particular attention would be paid to defending entrances, with gates protected by drawbridges , portcullises , and barbicans. Moats and other water defenses, whether natural or augmented, were also vital to defenders.
In the European Middle Ages , virtually all large cities had city walls— Dubrovnik in Dalmatia is a well-preserved example—and more important cities had citadels , forts , or castles.
Great effort was expended to ensure a good water supply inside the city in case of siege. In some cases, long tunnels were constructed to carry water into the city.
Until the invention of gunpowder -based weapons and the resulting higher-velocity projectiles , the balance of power and logistics definitely favored the defender.
With the invention of gunpowder, cannon and mortars and howitzers in modern times , the traditional methods of defense became less effective against a determined siege.
Although there are numerous ancient accounts of cities being sacked, few contain any clues to how this was achieved.
Some popular tales existed on how the cunning heroes succeeded in their sieges. The best-known is the Trojan Horse of the Trojan War , and a similar story tells how the Canaanite city of Joppa was conquered by the Egyptians in the 15th century BC.
The Biblical Book of Joshua contains the story of the miraculous Battle of Jericho. A more detailed historical account from the 8th century BC, called the Piankhi stela , records how the Nubians laid siege to and conquered several Egyptian cities by using battering rams, archers, and slingers and building causeways across moats.
During the Peloponnesian War , one hundred sieges were attempted and fifty-eight ended with the surrender of the besieged area.
Alexander the Great 's army successfully besieged many powerful cities during his conquests. Two of his most impressive achievements in siegecraft took place in the Siege of Tyre and the Siege of the Sogdian Rock.
The Macedonians built a mole , a raised spit of earth across the water, by piling stones up on a natural land bridge that extended underwater to the island, and although the Tyrians rallied by sending a fire ship to destroy the towers, and captured the mole in a swarming frenzy, the city eventually fell to the Macedonians after a seven-month siege.
In complete contrast to Tyre, Sogdian Rock was captured by stealthy attack. Alexander used commando-like tactics to scale the cliffs and capture the high ground, and the demoralized defenders surrendered.
The importance of siege warfare in the ancient period should not be underestimated. One of the contributing causes of Hannibal 's inability to defeat Rome was his lack of siege engines , thus, while he was able to defeat Roman armies in the field, he was unable to capture Rome itself.
The legionary armies of the Roman Republic and Empire are noted as being particularly skilled and determined in siege warfare. An astonishing number and variety of sieges, for example, formed the core of Julius Caesar 's mid-1st-century BC conquest of Gaul modern France.
In his Commentarii de Bello Gallico Commentaries on the Gallic War , Caesar describes how, at the Battle of Alesia , the Roman legions created two huge fortified walls around the city.
The Romans held the ground in between the two walls. The besieged Gauls, facing starvation, eventually surrendered after their relief force met defeat against Caesar's auxiliary cavalry.
During the Roman-Persian Wars , siege warfare was extensively being used by both sides. The early Muslims, led by the Islamic prophet Muhammad , made extensive use of sieges during military campaigns.
The first use was during the Invasion of Banu Qaynuqa. According to Islamic tradition, the invasion of Banu Qaynuqa   occurred in AD.
The Banu Qaynuqa were a Jewish tribe expelled by Muhammad for allegedly breaking the treaty known as the Constitution of Medina   : by pinning the clothes of a Muslim woman, which led to her being stripped naked.
A Muslim killed a Jew in retaliation, and the Jews in turn killed the Muslim man. This escalated to a chain of revenge killings, and enmity grew between Muslims and the Banu Qaynuqa, leading to the siege of their fortress.
The second siege was during the Invasion of Banu Nadir. According to The Sealed Nectar , the siege did not last long; the Banu Nadir Jews willingly offered to comply with the Muhammad's order and leave Madinah.
Their caravan counted loaded camels, including their chiefs, Huyai bin Akhtab, and Salam bin Abi Al-Huqaiq, who left for Khaibar, whereas another party shifted to Syria.
Muhammad seized their weapons, land, houses, and wealth. Amongst the other booty he managed to capture, there were 50 armours, 50 helmets, and swords.
This booty was exclusively Muhammad's because no fighting was involved in capturing it. He divided the booty at his own discretion among the early Emigrants and two poor Helpers, Abu Dujana and Suhail bin Haneef.
Other examples include the Invasion of Banu Qurayza in February—March  and the Siege of Ta'if in January In the Middle Ages, the Mongol Empire 's campaign against China then comprising the Western Xia Dynasty , Jin Dynasty , and Southern Song dynasty by Genghis Khan until Kublai Khan , who eventually established the Yuan Dynasty in , with their armies was extremely effective, allowing the Mongols to sweep through large areas.
Even if they could not enter some of the more well-fortified cities, they used innovative battle tactics to grab hold of the land and the people:.
Another Mongol tactic was to use catapults to launch corpses of plague victims into besieged cities. The disease-carrying fleas from the bodies would then infest the city, and the plague would spread, allowing the city to be easily captured, although this transmission mechanism was not known at the time.
In , the bodies of Mongol warriors of the Golden Horde who had died of plague were thrown over the walls of the besieged Crimean city of Kaffa now Feodosiya.
It has been speculated that this operation may have been responsible for the advent of the Black Death in Europe. On the first night while laying siege to a city, the leader of the Mongol forces would lead from a white tent : if the city surrendered, all would be spared.
On the second day, he would use a red tent: if the city surrendered, the men would all be killed, but the rest would be spared. Play with friends Powered by Y8 Account.
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